Android Studio encouters Manifest Merger Error

All we need is an easy explanation of the problem, so here it is.

I have encountered Manifest Merger Error on Android Studio and am at a lost on how to solve the errors despite attempting all the solution suggested on StackOverFlow.

My Error:
Manifest Merger Error

Execution failed for task ':app:processDebugAndroidTestManifest'.
> Manifest merger failed with multiple errors, see logs

> Task :app:processDebugAndroidTestManifest FAILED
/Users/eugesher/AndroidStudioProjects/MyApplicationTutorial1/app/build/intermediates/tmp/manifest/androidTest/debug/tempFile1ProcessTestManifest6540219412851452254.xml Error:
    android:exported needs to be explicitly specified for <activity>. Apps targeting Android 12 and higher are required to specify an explicit value for `android:exported` when the corresponding component has an intent filter defined. See https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/activity-element#exported for details.
/Users/eugesher/AndroidStudioProjects/MyApplicationTutorial1/app/build/intermediates/tmp/manifest/androidTest/debug/tempFile1ProcessTestManifest6540219412851452254.xml Error:
    android:exported needs to be explicitly specified for <activity>. Apps targeting Android 12 and higher are required to specify an explicit value for `android:exported` when the corresponding component has an intent filter defined. See https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/activity-element#exported for details.
/Users/eugesher/AndroidStudioProjects/MyApplicationTutorial1/app/build/intermediates/tmp/manifest/androidTest/debug/tempFile1ProcessTestManifest6540219412851452254.xml Error:
    android:exported needs to be explicitly specified for <activity>. Apps targeting Android 12 and higher are required to specify an explicit value for `android:exported` when the corresponding component has an intent filter defined. See https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/activity-element#exported for details.

See http://g.co/androidstudio/manifest-merger for more information about the manifest merger.


Execution failed for task ':app:processDebugAndroidTestManifest'.
> Manifest merger failed with multiple errors, see logs

* Try:
Run with --info or --debug option to get more log output. Run with --scan to get full insights.

* Exception is:
org.gradle.api.tasks.TaskExecutionException: Execution failed for task ':app:processDebugAndroidTestManifest'.
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.lambda$executeIfValid$1(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:187)
    at org.gradle.internal.Try$Failure.ifSuccessfulOrElse(Try.java:268)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.executeIfValid(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:185)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.execute(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:173)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.CleanupStaleOutputsExecuter.execute(CleanupStaleOutputsExecuter.java:109)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.FinalizePropertiesTaskExecuter.execute(FinalizePropertiesTaskExecuter.java:46)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ResolveTaskExecutionModeExecuter.execute(ResolveTaskExecutionModeExecuter.java:51)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.SkipTaskWithNoActionsExecuter.execute(SkipTaskWithNoActionsExecuter.java:57)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.SkipOnlyIfTaskExecuter.execute(SkipOnlyIfTaskExecuter.java:56)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.CatchExceptionTaskExecuter.execute(CatchExceptionTaskExecuter.java:36)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.executeTask(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:77)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.call(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:55)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.call(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:52)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:200)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:195)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$3.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:75)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$3.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:68)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:153)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:68)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.call(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:62)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.lambda$call$2(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:76)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.UnmanagedBuildOperationWrapper.callWithUnmanagedSupport(UnmanagedBuildOperationWrapper.java:54)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.call(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:76)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter.execute(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:52)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.LocalTaskNodeExecutor.execute(LocalTaskNodeExecutor.java:74)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$InvokeNodeExecutorsAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:408)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$InvokeNodeExecutorsAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:395)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$BuildOperationAwareExecutionAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:388)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$BuildOperationAwareExecutionAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:374)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.lambda$run$0(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:127)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.execute(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:191)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.executeNextNode(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:182)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.run(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:124)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ExecutorPolicy$CatchAndRecordFailures.onExecute(ExecutorPolicy.java:64)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ManagedExecutorImpl$1.run(ManagedExecutorImpl.java:48)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ThreadFactoryImpl$ManagedThreadRunnable.run(ThreadFactoryImpl.java:56)
Caused by: java.lang.RuntimeException: Manifest merger failed with multiple errors, see logs
    at com.android.build.gradle.tasks.ProcessTestManifest.handleMergingResult(ProcessTestManifest.kt:331)
    at com.android.build.gradle.tasks.ProcessTestManifest.mergeManifestsForTestVariant(ProcessTestManifest.kt:301)
    at com.android.build.gradle.tasks.ProcessTestManifest.doFullTaskAction(ProcessTestManifest.kt:111)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.tasks.IncrementalTask.handleIncrementalInputs(IncrementalTask.kt:110)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.tasks.IncrementalTask.access$handleIncrementalInputs(IncrementalTask.kt:64)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.tasks.IncrementalTask$taskAction$$inlined$recordTaskAction$1.invoke(BaseTask.kt:62)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.tasks.Blocks.recordSpan(Blocks.java:51)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.tasks.IncrementalTask.taskAction$gradle_core(IncrementalTask.kt:141)
    at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
    at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:62)
    at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
    at org.gradle.internal.reflect.JavaMethod.invoke(JavaMethod.java:104)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.project.taskfactory.IncrementalTaskInputsTaskAction.doExecute(IncrementalTaskInputsTaskAction.java:47)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.project.taskfactory.StandardTaskAction.execute(StandardTaskAction.java:51)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.project.taskfactory.AbstractIncrementalTaskAction.execute(AbstractIncrementalTaskAction.java:25)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.project.taskfactory.StandardTaskAction.execute(StandardTaskAction.java:29)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$2.run(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:498)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$1.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:29)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$1.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:26)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$3.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:75)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$3.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:68)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:153)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:68)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.run(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:56)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.lambda$run$1(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:71)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.UnmanagedBuildOperationWrapper.runWithUnmanagedSupport(UnmanagedBuildOperationWrapper.java:45)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.run(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:71)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.executeAction(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:483)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.executeActions(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:466)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.access$300(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:105)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$TaskExecution.executeWithPreviousOutputFiles(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:270)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$TaskExecution.execute(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:248)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep.executeInternal(ExecuteStep.java:83)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep.access$000(ExecuteStep.java:37)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep$1.call(ExecuteStep.java:50)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep$1.call(ExecuteStep.java:47)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:200)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:195)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$3.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:75)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$3.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:68)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:153)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:68)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.call(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:62)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.lambda$call$2(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:76)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.UnmanagedBuildOperationWrapper.callWithUnmanagedSupport(UnmanagedBuildOperationWrapper.java:54)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.call(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:76)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep.execute(ExecuteStep.java:47)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep.execute(ExecuteStep.java:37)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.RemovePreviousOutputsStep.execute(RemovePreviousOutputsStep.java:68)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.RemovePreviousOutputsStep.execute(RemovePreviousOutputsStep.java:38)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveInputChangesStep.execute(ResolveInputChangesStep.java:50)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveInputChangesStep.execute(ResolveInputChangesStep.java:36)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CancelExecutionStep.execute(CancelExecutionStep.java:41)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.TimeoutStep.executeWithoutTimeout(TimeoutStep.java:74)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.TimeoutStep.execute(TimeoutStep.java:55)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CreateOutputsStep.execute(CreateOutputsStep.java:51)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CreateOutputsStep.execute(CreateOutputsStep.java:29)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CaptureStateAfterExecutionStep.execute(CaptureStateAfterExecutionStep.java:54)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CaptureStateAfterExecutionStep.execute(CaptureStateAfterExecutionStep.java:35)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.BroadcastChangingOutputsStep.execute(BroadcastChangingOutputsStep.java:60)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.BroadcastChangingOutputsStep.execute(BroadcastChangingOutputsStep.java:27)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.BuildCacheStep.executeWithoutCache(BuildCacheStep.java:174)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.BuildCacheStep.execute(BuildCacheStep.java:74)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.BuildCacheStep.execute(BuildCacheStep.java:45)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.StoreExecutionStateStep.execute(StoreExecutionStateStep.java:40)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.StoreExecutionStateStep.execute(StoreExecutionStateStep.java:29)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.RecordOutputsStep.execute(RecordOutputsStep.java:36)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.RecordOutputsStep.execute(RecordOutputsStep.java:22)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.executeBecause(SkipUpToDateStep.java:99)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.lambda$execute$0(SkipUpToDateStep.java:92)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.execute(SkipUpToDateStep.java:52)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.execute(SkipUpToDateStep.java:36)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveChangesStep.execute(ResolveChangesStep.java:84)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveChangesStep.execute(ResolveChangesStep.java:41)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.legacy.MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.execute(MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.java:37)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.legacy.MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.execute(MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.java:27)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveCachingStateStep.execute(ResolveCachingStateStep.java:91)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveCachingStateStep.execute(ResolveCachingStateStep.java:49)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CaptureStateBeforeExecutionStep.execute(CaptureStateBeforeExecutionStep.java:78)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CaptureStateBeforeExecutionStep.execute(CaptureStateBeforeExecutionStep.java:49)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ValidateStep.execute(ValidateStep.java:105)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ValidateStep.execute(ValidateStep.java:50)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipEmptyWorkStep.lambda$execute$2(SkipEmptyWorkStep.java:86)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipEmptyWorkStep.execute(SkipEmptyWorkStep.java:86)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipEmptyWorkStep.execute(SkipEmptyWorkStep.java:32)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.legacy.MarkSnapshottingInputsStartedStep.execute(MarkSnapshottingInputsStartedStep.java:38)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.LoadExecutionStateStep.execute(LoadExecutionStateStep.java:43)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.LoadExecutionStateStep.execute(LoadExecutionStateStep.java:31)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.AssignWorkspaceStep.lambda$execute$0(AssignWorkspaceStep.java:40)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$TaskExecution$2.withWorkspace(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:283)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.AssignWorkspaceStep.execute(AssignWorkspaceStep.java:40)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.AssignWorkspaceStep.execute(AssignWorkspaceStep.java:30)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.IdentityCacheStep.execute(IdentityCacheStep.java:37)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.IdentityCacheStep.execute(IdentityCacheStep.java:27)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.IdentifyStep.execute(IdentifyStep.java:49)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.IdentifyStep.execute(IdentifyStep.java:35)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.impl.DefaultExecutionEngine$1.execute(DefaultExecutionEngine.java:76)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.executeIfValid(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:184)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.execute(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:173)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.CleanupStaleOutputsExecuter.execute(CleanupStaleOutputsExecuter.java:109)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.FinalizePropertiesTaskExecuter.execute(FinalizePropertiesTaskExecuter.java:46)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ResolveTaskExecutionModeExecuter.execute(ResolveTaskExecutionModeExecuter.java:51)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.SkipTaskWithNoActionsExecuter.execute(SkipTaskWithNoActionsExecuter.java:57)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.SkipOnlyIfTaskExecuter.execute(SkipOnlyIfTaskExecuter.java:56)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.CatchExceptionTaskExecuter.execute(CatchExceptionTaskExecuter.java:36)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.executeTask(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:77)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.call(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:55)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.call(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:52)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:200)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:195)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$3.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:75)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner$3.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:68)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:153)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.execute(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:68)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationRunner.call(DefaultBuildOperationRunner.java:62)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.lambda$call$2(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:76)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.UnmanagedBuildOperationWrapper.callWithUnmanagedSupport(UnmanagedBuildOperationWrapper.java:54)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.call(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:76)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter.execute(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:52)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.LocalTaskNodeExecutor.execute(LocalTaskNodeExecutor.java:74)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$InvokeNodeExecutorsAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:408)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$InvokeNodeExecutorsAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:395)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$BuildOperationAwareExecutionAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:388)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$BuildOperationAwareExecutionAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:374)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.lambda$run$0(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:127)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.execute(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:191)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.executeNextNode(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:182)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.run(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:124)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ExecutorPolicy$CatchAndRecordFailures.onExecute(ExecutorPolicy.java:64)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ManagedExecutorImpl$1.run(ManagedExecutorImpl.java:48)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ThreadFactoryImpl$ManagedThreadRunnable.run(ThreadFactoryImpl.java:56)

The error is found on build and no error message cannot be found on Merged Manifest of main/AndroidManifest/xml file despite previously being present and I do not know how to get it. I am aware it is on the right window.

Solutions I have attempted are:

  1. Addition of xmlns:tools and tools:node :

XML FILE

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    package="com.example.myapplicationtutorial1"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools">

    <application
        tools:node="replace"
        android:allowBackup="true"
        android:icon="@mipmap/ic_launcher"
        android:label="@string/app_name"
        android:roundIcon="@mipmap/ic_launcher_round"
        android:supportsRtl="true"
        android:theme="@style/Theme.MyApplicationTutorial1">
        <activity
            android:name=".MainActivity"
            android:exported="true"
            tools:node="merge">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
    </application>


BUILD GRADLE(.APP)

plugins {
    id 'com.android.application'
    id 'kotlin-android'
}

android {
    compileSdkVersion 31

    defaultConfig {
        applicationId "com.example.myapplicationtutorial1"
        minSdkVersion 21
        targetSdkVersion 31
        versionCode 1
        versionName "1.0"

        testInstrumentationRunner "androidx.test.runner.AndroidJUnitRunner"
    }

    buildTypes {
        release {
            minifyEnabled false
            proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android-optimize.txt'), 'proguard-rules.pro'
        }
    }
    compileOptions {
        sourceCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
        targetCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
    }
    kotlinOptions {
        jvmTarget = '1.8'
    }
}

dependencies {

    implementation 'androidx.core:core-ktx:1.3.2'
    implementation 'androidx.appcompat:appcompat:1.2.0'
    implementation 'com.google.android.material:material:1.3.0'
    implementation 'androidx.constraintlayout:constraintlayout:2.0.4'
    testImplementation 'junit:junit:4.+'
    androidTestImplementation 'androidx.test.ext:junit:1.1.2'
    androidTestImplementation 'androidx.test.espresso:espresso-core:3.3.0'
}

BUILD GRADLE

// Top-level build file where you can add configuration options common to all sub-projects/modules.
buildscript {
    repositories {
        google()
        mavenCentral()
    }
    dependencies {
        classpath 'com.android.tools.build:gradle:7.0.4'
        classpath "org.jetbrains.kotlin:kotlin-gradle-plugin:1.6.0"

        // NOTE: Do not place your application dependencies here; they belong
        // in the individual module build.gradle files
    }
}

task clean(type: Delete) {
    delete rootProject.buildDir
}
  1. Changing of android:minSDKVersion to 21 and android:targetSDKVersion to 31.

How to solve :

I know you bored from this bug, So we are here to help you! Take a deep breath and look at the explanation of your problem. We have many solutions to this problem, But we recommend you to use the first method because it is tested & true method that will 100% work for you.

Method 1

try if this can help: downgrade the targetSdkVersion in app/build.gradle to 30. Hope this help. Have a nice day.

Note: Use and implement method 1 because this method fully tested our system.
Thank you 🙂

All methods was sourced from stackoverflow.com or stackexchange.com, is licensed under cc by-sa 2.5, cc by-sa 3.0 and cc by-sa 4.0

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